## Comprehensive Data Analysis of Transportation Systems Using Python

##### Description

This project aims to teach data analysis skills through practical application on a transportation dataset. Learners will explore, clean, visualize, and analyze the data using Python. The project will cover a variety of real-world analyses, including statistical summaries, trend analysis, clustering, and predictive modeling. Each unit is designed to be independent and progressive, ensuring that learners build on their knowledge incrementally.

The original prompt:

Let's work through a detailed example of analyzing a transportation dataset in a Google Collab data notebook using Python. The dataset is something you can make up but make it comprehensive. Let's work through a variety of different types of real-world analysis we can complete, and you can show the code we can use. Imagine you are directly supporting work in the data notebook so be as detailed as possible and make sure the code actually will work on the first go.

# Introduction to the Project and Dataset

## Project Overview

This project focuses on the analysis of a complex transportation dataset. We will utilize Python and its data analysis libraries within a Google Colab environment to perform various data exploration, visualization, and predictive tasks. The objective is to gain insights that could help improve transportation systems and policies.

### Setup Instructions

To begin, we need to set up the Google Colab environment and import the necessary libraries. Ensure you have a Google account and access to Google Colab. Follow these steps to get started:

#### Step 1: Open Google Colab

- Navigate to
Google Colab . - Sign in with your Google account if needed.
- Create a new notebook by selecting
`File > New Notebook`

.

#### Step 2: Import Necessary Libraries

In the new Colab notebook, execute the following code to import the required Python libraries for the project:

```
# Importing necessary libraries
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
# Setting visualization styles
sns.set(style="whitegrid")
# To ignore warnings
import warnings
warnings.filterwarnings("ignore")
```

#### Step 3: Load the Dataset

Assume the transportation dataset is available in a CSV file named `transportation_data.csv`

. Upload the file to your Google Colab environment and then load it into a Pandas DataFrame:

```
# Loading the dataset
from google.colab import files
# Upload the dataset file
uploaded = files.upload()
# Assuming the file name is 'transportation_data.csv'
filename = list(uploaded.keys())[0]
data = pd.read_csv(filename)
# Display the first few rows of the dataset
data.head()
```

### Dataset Overview

Before diving into data analysis tasks, it is crucial to understand the dataset's structure and characteristics. The `data.head()`

method displays the first few rows of the dataset to give an initial glance at its contents.

Additionally, obtain a summary of the dataset, including data types and missing values, by running the following commands:

```
# Display dataset summary
data.info()
# Display basic statistical details
data.describe()
```

#### Possible Columns in the Dataset:

**Trip_ID:**Unique identifier for each trip.**Start_Time:**Start time of the trip.**End_Time:**End time of the trip.**Start_Location:**Starting point of the trip.**End_Location:**End point of the trip.**Transport_Mode:**Mode of transportation (e.g., Bus, Train, Taxi).**Distance:**Distance covered during the trip.**Duration:**Duration of the trip.

Understanding these columns will help you in the succeeding steps of data preparation and analysis.

## Conclusion

You have now been introduced to the transportation dataset and have set up the necessary environment in Google Colab for your project. The next units will focus on in-depth data analysis, cleaning, and visualization to extract meaningful insights from the dataset.

Make sure to save your notebook periodically and document any observations or insights as you progress through the project. Happy analyzing!

# Setting Up Google Colab and Importing Packages

To start analyzing a complex transportation dataset using Python in Google Colab, follow the steps below to set up the environment and import necessary packages.

## Step-by-Step Implementation

### Step 1: Install Required Libraries

In the Google Colab environment, you can install libraries using the `!pip install`

command. Run the following commands to install the additional required libraries if they are not already installed.

```
!pip install pandas
!pip install numpy
!pip install matplotlib
!pip install seaborn
!pip install scikit-learn
```

### Step 2: Import Necessary Packages

Next, you need to import the libraries required for data analysis. Use the following code to import these packages:

```
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error, r2_score
```

### Step 3: Load the Dataset

Assume the dataset is located on your Google Drive. Use the following commands to mount your Google Drive, list its contents, and load the dataset:

```
from google.colab import drive
# Mount Google Drive to access files
drive.mount('/content/drive')
# Change directory to the location of the dataset
%cd /content/drive/MyDrive/your_dataset_directory/
# Load the dataset
df = pd.read_csv('transportation_dataset.csv')
```

### Step 4: Display First Few Rows of the Dataset

After loading the dataset, it is good practice to display the first few rows to ensure that the data has been loaded correctly.

```
# Display the first 5 rows of the dataset
df.head()
```

### Step 5: Summary Statistics

Display summary statistics to get an overview of the dataset.

```
# Get summary statistics of the dataset
df.describe()
```

### Step 6: Data Cleaning and Preprocessing (Example Implementation)

Here is a brief example of initial data cleaning steps you might want to perform:

```
# Check for missing values
df.isnull().sum()
# Drop rows with any missing values
df = df.dropna()
# Convert categorical columns to numeric
df = pd.get_dummies(df, drop_first=True)
# Split dataset into features (X) and target (y) variables
X = df.drop('target_column', axis=1) # Replace 'target_column' with actual column name
y = df['target_column'] # Replace 'target_column' with actual column name
```

### Conclusion

By following these steps, you will have set up Google Colab, installed and imported the necessary packages, loaded the dataset, and performed initial data cleaning and preprocessing. You may now proceed with further data analysis and model development as part of your project.

Make sure to replace placeholders like `'your_dataset_directory'`

and `'target_column'`

with actual values pertinent to your project dataset.

# Loading and Inspecting the Dataset

```
# Assuming the necessary packages are already imported as mentioned
# For demonstration, typical packages: pandas
# Load the dataset
# Modify the path to where your dataset is located
dataset_path = "/path/to/your/dataset.csv"
# Reading the dataset into a DataFrame
df = pd.read_csv(dataset_path)
# Inspecting the first few rows of the DataFrame
print("First 5 rows of the dataset:")
print(df.head())
# Display basic information about the DataFrame
print("\nDataset Information:")
print(df.info())
# Display summary statistics for numerical columns
print("\nSummary Statistics for Numerical Columns:")
print(df.describe())
# Display the column names for reference
print("\nDataset Columns:")
print(df.columns)
```

This code snippet will enable you to load the dataset from the specified path and perform initial inspections to understand its structure, data types, and get some basic statistics. This foundational step is critical for shaping the subsequent analysis steps in your project.

## Part #4: Data Cleaning and Preprocessing

### Handling Missing Values

```
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
# Assuming `df` is the DataFrame loaded in previous steps
# Check for missing values
print("Missing values before cleaning:\n", df.isnull().sum())
# Fill missing numerical data with median
numerical_cols = df.select_dtypes(include=[np.number]).columns
df[numerical_cols] = df[numerical_cols].fillna(df[numerical_cols].median())
# Fill missing categorical data with mode
categorical_cols = df.select_dtypes(include=[object]).columns
df[categorical_cols] = df[categorical_cols].apply(lambda x: x.fillna(x.mode()[0]))
print("Missing values after cleaning:\n", df.isnull().sum())
```

### Removing Duplicates

```
# Remove duplicate rows
df = df.drop_duplicates()
```

### Converting Data Types

```
# Convert data types where necessary
# Example: Convert 'date' column from object to datetime
df['date'] = pd.to_datetime(df['date'])
```

### Handling Outliers

```
from scipy import stats
# Remove outliers for all numerical columns
z_scores = np.abs(stats.zscore(df[numerical_cols]))
df = df[(z_scores < 3).all(axis=1)]
```

### Encoding Categorical Variables

```
# One-hot encoding for categorical variables
df = pd.get_dummies(df, drop_first=True)
```

### Feature Scaling

```
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
scaler = StandardScaler()
# Scaling numerical columns
df[numerical_cols] = scaler.fit_transform(df[numerical_cols])
```

### Final DataFrame

```
# Display the cleaned DataFrame
print(df.head())
```

This practical implementation will enable you to clean and preprocess your transportation dataset effectively. Ensure that you adapt column names and apply relevant transformations specific to your dataset attributes.

## Part 5: Exploratory Data Analysis and Visualization

### Exploratory Data Analysis

```
# Assuming the necessary packages are already imported and dataset is cleaned and preprocessed
# Display basic statistics of the dataset
print(dataset.describe())
# Display information about the dataset
print(dataset.info())
# Display the first few rows of the dataset
print(dataset.head())
# Checking for correlations between numerical features
correlation_matrix = dataset.corr()
print(correlation_matrix)
```

### Data Visualization

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
# Set a style for the plots
sns.set(style="whitegrid")
# Histogram of numerical features
num_columns = dataset.select_dtypes(include=['float64', 'int64']).columns
dataset[num_columns].hist(bins=15, figsize=(15, 10), layout=(4, 4))
plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()
# Pair plot for numerical features
sns.pairplot(dataset[num_columns])
plt.show()
# Correlation heatmap
plt.figure(figsize=(12, 8))
heatmap = sns.heatmap(correlation_matrix, annot=True, cmap='coolwarm', linewidths=0.5)
plt.title('Correlation Heatmap')
plt.show()
# Box plots for numerical features to check outliers
plt.figure(figsize=(15, 10))
for idx, col in enumerate(num_columns):
plt.subplot(4, 4, idx+1)
sns.boxplot(y=dataset[col])
plt.title(col)
plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()
# Count plot for categorical variables (if any)
cat_columns = dataset.select_dtypes(include=['object', 'category']).columns
plt.figure(figsize=(15, 10))
for idx, col in enumerate(cat_columns):
plt.subplot(2, 3, idx+1)
sns.countplot(y=dataset[col])
plt.title(col)
plt.tight_layout()
plt.show()
```

### Insights from EDA

```
import pandas as pd
# Example insight generation
def extract_insights(dataset):
insights = {}
# Calculating mean travel time and grouping by a categorical feature if present
if 'travel_time' in dataset.columns and 'transport_mode' in dataset.columns:
insights['mean_travel_time_by_mode'] = dataset.groupby('transport_mode')['travel_time'].mean()
# Other possible insights
if 'distance' in dataset.columns:
insights['max_distance'] = dataset['distance'].max()
insights['min_distance'] = dataset['distance'].min()
return insights
# Extracting insights
insights = extract_insights(dataset)
print(insights)
```

### Conclusion

In this section, you have carried out an exploratory data analysis and visualized the key aspects of your transportation dataset. This helped in understanding the relationships, distributions, and potential anomalies in the data. These visualizations and insights will guide the next steps of your project.

# Descriptive Statistics and Data Summarization

In this part of the project, we'll focus on generating descriptive statistics and summarizing the data to gain insights into the transportation dataset. This will involve calculating measures of central tendency (mean, median, mode), measures of dispersion (standard deviation, variance, range), and other relevant statistics. We'll use Python with pandas, assuming the dataset is loaded into a DataFrame named `df`

.

## Measures of Central Tendency

### Mean

```
mean_values = df.mean()
print("Mean Values:\n", mean_values)
```

### Median

```
median_values = df.median()
print("Median Values:\n", median_values)
```

### Mode

```
mode_values = df.mode().iloc[0] # .iloc[0] to get the first mode for each column
print("Mode Values:\n", mode_values)
```

## Measures of Dispersion

### Standard Deviation

```
std_deviation = df.std()
print("Standard Deviation:\n", std_deviation)
```

### Variance

```
variance_values = df.var()
print("Variance Values:\n", variance_values)
```

### Range

```
range_values = df.max() - df.min()
print("Range Values:\n", range_values)
```

## Summary Statistics

```
summary_stats = df.describe()
print("Summary Statistics:\n", summary_stats)
```

## Additional Statistics

### Skewness

```
skewness = df.skew()
print("Skewness:\n", skewness)
```

### Kurtosis

```
kurtosis = df.kurt()
print("Kurtosis:\n", kurtosis)
```

### Counting Unique Values

```
unique_counts = df.nunique()
print("Unique Value Counts:\n", unique_counts)
```

### Missing Data Summary

```
missing_data = df.isnull().sum()
print("Missing Data:\n", missing_data)
```

### Correlation Matrix

```
correlation_matrix = df.corr()
print("Correlation Matrix:\n", correlation_matrix)
```

## Summarizing

By running these cells in your Google Colab environment, youâ€™ll generate a comprehensive set of descriptive statistics and summaries for your transportation dataset. This will aid in understanding the data's distribution, central tendencies, variability, and relationships between different features.

## Part 7: Time Series Analysis of Transportation Patterns

### Decomposing the Time Series

```
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from statsmodels.tsa.seasonal import seasonal_decompose
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# Assuming 'df' is the DataFrame and 'timestamp' is the datetime column, 'traffic_volume' the value column
df['timestamp'] = pd.to_datetime(df['timestamp'])
df.set_index('timestamp', inplace=True)
# Decompose the time series
result = seasonal_decompose(df['traffic_volume'], model='multiplicative', period=365)
# Plotting the decomposition
result.plot()
plt.show()
```

### Autocorrelation and Partial Autocorrelation

```
from statsmodels.graphics.tsaplots import plot_acf, plot_pacf
# Autocorrelation Plot
plot_acf(df['traffic_volume'])
plt.show()
# Partial Autocorrelation Plot
plot_pacf(df['traffic_volume'])
plt.show()
```

### ARIMA Model Fitting

```
from statsmodels.tsa.arima.model import ARIMA
# Fit ARIMA model (p, d, q) parameters should be adjusted based on ACF, PACF plots
model = ARIMA(df['traffic_volume'], order=(5,1,0))
model_fit = model.fit()
# Summary of the model
print(model_fit.summary())
# Predict future values
forecast = model_fit.forecast(steps=30)
forecast_df = pd.DataFrame(forecast, index=pd.date_range(start=df.index[-1], periods=30, freq='D'))
# Plot Observed vs Predicted
plt.figure(figsize=(10, 5))
plt.plot(df['traffic_volume'], label='Observed')
plt.plot(forecast_df, label='Forecast')
plt.legend()
plt.show()
```

### Seasonal ARIMA (SARIMA)

```
from statsmodels.tsa.statespace.sarimax import SARIMAX
# Fit SARIMA model (p, d, q) x (P, D, Q, s)
sarima_model = SARIMAX(df['traffic_volume'], order=(1,1,1), seasonal_order=(1,1,1,12))
sarima_fit = sarima_model.fit()
# Summary of the model
print(sarima_fit.summary())
# Predict future values
sarima_forecast = sarima_fit.forecast(steps=30)
sarima_forecast_df = pd.DataFrame(sarima_forecast, index=pd.date_range(start=df.index[-1], periods=30, freq='D'))
# Plot Observed vs Predicted
plt.figure(figsize=(10, 5))
plt.plot(df['traffic_volume'], label='Observed')
plt.plot(sarima_forecast_df, label='Forecast')
plt.legend()
plt.show()
```

### Evaluating Model Performance

```
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error
# Calculate training and test datasets for model evaluation
size = int(len(df) * 0.8)
train, test = df['traffic_volume'][0:size], df['traffic_volume'][size:len(df)]
# Fit model on training set
model = ARIMA(train, order=(5,1,0))
model_fit = model.fit()
# Make predictions on test set
predictions = model_fit.forecast(steps=len(test))
# Evaluate forecast performance
mse = mean_squared_error(test, predictions)
rmse = np.sqrt(mse)
print(f'RMSE: {rmse}')
```

### Conclusion

In this section, we decomposed the time series, analyzed autocorrelations, and built ARIMA and SARIMA models to forecast transportation patterns. We also evaluated the model performance. These steps will help identify seasonal patterns and trends in transportation data, enabling data-driven decision-making.

# Analyzing the Impact of External Factors

In this section, we will analyze the impact of external factors on transportation patterns. We're assuming external factors might include weather conditions, economic indicators, public holidays, and any disruptions in service. We will first collect and integrate data on these factors and then perform correlation and regression analysis with our transportation data.

## Step 1: Collect and Integrate External Data

Make sure you have external datasets ready. Hereâ€™s an example of how you might read a CSV file containing weather data and merge it with our main transportation dataset.

```
import pandas as pd
# Assuming you have your main transportation dataset already loaded in a DataFrame called transport_df
# Sample code to read external data (e.g., weather data)
weather_df = pd.read_csv('weather_data.csv')
# Merge with transportation data on date or time column
# Assume 'date' column is the common identifier
merged_df = pd.merge(transport_df, weather_df, on='date')
# Check the merged dataset
print(merged_df.head())
```

## Step 2: Correlation Analysis

Perform correlation analysis to see how external factors relate to transportation patterns.

```
# Calculate correlation matrix
correlation_matrix = merged_df.corr()
# Display correlation for transportation metrics with external factors
transportation_columns = ['column1', 'column2'] # Replace with actual columns related to transportation
external_factors = ['weather', 'economic_indicator'] # Replace with actual external factors columns
for col in transportation_columns:
print(f"Correlation of {col} with external factors:")
for factor in external_factors:
corr_value = correlation_matrix.loc[col, factor]
print(f"{factor}: {corr_value}")
```

## Step 3: Multiple Linear Regression Analysis

Conduct multiple linear regression to quantify the impact of multiple external factors on transportation patterns.

```
import statsmodels.api as sm
# Prepare the data for regression analysis
y = merged_df['target_transportation_metric'] # Replace with actual target column name
X = merged_df[['weather', 'economic_indicator']] # Replace with actual factor column names
# Add constant to the model
X = sm.add_constant(X)
# Fit the regression model
model = sm.OLS(y, X).fit()
# Print the summary of the regression model
print(model.summary())
```

## Step 4: Interpretation of Regression Results

Analyze and interpret the results from the regression model to understand the significance and impact of external factors. Examine the p-values, coefficients, and R-squared values from the regression summary output to determine which factors have significant impacts.

```
# Example Interpretation (Written Explanation)
- Coefficient of weather: Indicates the average change in the transportation metric for each unit increase in the weather index.
- p-value of economic_indicator: If less than 0.05, suggests that the economic indicator is a statistically significant predictor of the transportation pattern.
- R-squared value: Indicates how well the external factors explain the variation in the transportation data.
```

Use the insights gained from the correlation and regression analysis to draw conclusions about the impact of external factors on transportation patterns. Document your findings and include visualizations to support your analysis.

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# Visualize the relationship between a significant factor and the transportation metric
plt.scatter(merged_df['weather'], merged_df['target_transportation_metric'])
plt.title('Impact of Weather on Transportation Metric')
plt.xlabel('Weather')
plt.ylabel('Transportation Metric')
plt.show()
```

### Geospatial Analysis of Transportation Data

Now that we have gone through the initial stages of the project, from introduction to analyzing external factors, we shift our focus to geospatial analysis. This section involves visualizing and analyzing the transportation data on a geographic map.

#### Import Necessary Libraries

```
import geopandas as gpd
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
from shapely.geometry import Point
from folium import Map, Marker, LayerControl
import folium
```

#### Load the Geospatial Data

```
# Assuming the dataset is loaded into a DataFrame named df
# Ensure your DataFrame contains 'longitude' and 'latitude' columns
# Example DataFrame Structure
# df = pd.DataFrame({
# 'trip_id': [1, 2, 3],
# 'start_latitude': [40.712776, 34.052235, 41.878113],
# 'start_longitude': [-74.005974, -118.243683, -87.629799],
# 'end_latitude': [40.712776, 34.052235, 41.878113],
# 'end_longitude': [-74.005974, -118.243683, -87.629799]
# })
# Convert to GeoDataFrame
geometry = [Point(xy) for xy in zip(df['start_longitude'], df['start_latitude'])]
geo_df = gpd.GeoDataFrame(df, geometry=geometry)
```

#### Plotting the Points on a Static Map

```
# Load a map of the relevant area. Replace 'nybb' with your shape file path
map_df = gpd.read_file(gpd.datasets.get_path('nybb'))
# Ensure the CRS (coordinate reference systems) match
map_df = map_df.to_crs(epsg=4326)
geo_df = geo_df.set_crs(epsg=4326)
# Plot
fig, ax = plt.subplots(figsize=(10, 10))
map_df.plot(ax=ax, color='lightgrey')
geo_df.plot(ax=ax, color='red', markersize=5)
plt.title('Geospatial Analysis of Transportation Data')
plt.xlabel('Longitude')
plt.ylabel('Latitude')
plt.show()
```

#### Interactive Map using Folium

```
# Center map around a mean latitude and longitude
center = [df['start_latitude'].mean(), df['start_longitude'].mean()]
m = folium.Map(location=center, zoom_start=12)
# Add trip start points
for idx, row in df.iterrows():
folium.Marker([row['start_latitude'], row['start_longitude']],
popup=f"Trip ID: {row['trip_id']}").add_to(m)
# Add a layer control panel
LayerControl().add_to(m)
# Save to html
m.save('transportation_geospatial_analysis.html')
```

#### Heatmap Representation (Optional)

```
from folium.plugins import HeatMap
# Create a list of locations
locations = list(zip(df['start_latitude'], df['start_longitude']))
# Add HeatMap
m.add_child(HeatMap(locations, radius=10))
# Save the map with HeatMap
m.save('transportation_heatmap.html')
```

This completes the geospatial analysis section, allowing you to visualize the transportation data on both static and interactive maps. Use the static map for simple visualization and the interactive map for a more dynamic user experience.

# Clustering Analysis to Identify Patterns

## Overview

This section focuses on performing clustering analysis to identify patterns in the transportation dataset. We will use the K-Means clustering algorithm to group similar data points. The analysis will be performed using Python in a Google Colab environment where you have already set up the necessary packages and loaded/cleaned the data.

## Implementation

### 1. Importing Necessary Libraries

```
from sklearn.cluster import KMeans
from sklearn.preprocessing import StandardScaler
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
```

### 2. Selecting Features for Clustering

Assuming you've already performed exploratory data analysis (EDA) and determined which features are most relevant, select these features for clustering:

```
# Example feature selection
features = ['trip_duration', 'trip_distance', 'pickup_latitude', 'pickup_longitude', 'dropoff_latitude', 'dropoff_longitude']
X = transportation_data[features]
```

### 3. Data Standardization

Standardize the data to ensure all features contribute equally to the clustering process:

```
scaler = StandardScaler()
X_scaled = scaler.fit_transform(X)
```

### 4. Finding the Optimal Number of Clusters

Use the Elbow Method to determine the optimal number of clusters:

```
inertia = []
K = range(1, 11)
for k in K:
kmeans = KMeans(n_clusters=k, random_state=42)
kmeans.fit(X_scaled)
inertia.append(kmeans.inertia_)
# Plotting the Elbow graph
plt.figure(figsize=(10, 6))
plt.plot(K, inertia, 'bo-')
plt.xlabel('Number of clusters')
plt.ylabel('Inertia')
plt.title('Elbow Method for Optimal Number of Clusters')
plt.show()
```

### 5. Applying K-Means Clustering

Based on the Elbow Method, choose the optimal number of clusters (let's say 4 for this example):

```
kmeans = KMeans(n_clusters=4, random_state=42)
clusters = kmeans.fit_predict(X_scaled)
transportation_data['Cluster'] = clusters
```

### 6. Visualizing Clusters

For visualization, use pairplots or scatter plots to see the distribution of clusters:

```
# Example pairplot visualization using seaborn
sns.pairplot(transportation_data, hue='Cluster', vars=['trip_duration', 'trip_distance'])
plt.show()
# Example scatter plot for geospatial patterns
plt.figure(figsize=(10, 6))
sns.scatterplot(x='pickup_longitude', y='pickup_latitude', hue='Cluster', data=transportation_data, palette='viridis')
plt.title('Pickup Locations by Cluster')
plt.show()
```

### 7. Analyzing Cluster Patterns

Evaluate the characteristics of each cluster by calculating the mean of features within each cluster:

```
cluster_means = transportation_data.groupby('Cluster').mean()
print(cluster_means)
```

Analyze the results to understand the different patterns each cluster represents. For example, you might find one cluster represents long-distance trips, another represents trips within a specific geographic area, and so on.

### Conclusion

By implementing the clustering analysis, you can identify distinct patterns in your transportation dataset, allowing for more insightful analysis and better decision-making. This step provides a structured approach to uncovering hidden structures in your data.

# Building Predictive Models

## Objective

Build predictive models to forecast transportation demand using a complex transportation dataset in Python in a Google Colab environment.

## Steps

**Split the Dataset****Feature Selection****Model Building****Model Evaluation**

### Split the Dataset

```
# Assuming `df` is your DataFrame after preprocessing
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
# Example target variable: 'target'
X = df.drop(columns=['target'])
y = df['target']
# Split the data into training and testing sets
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)
```

### Feature Selection

```
# Use Feature Importance from a Tree-Based Model for Feature Selection
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestRegressor
# Initialize model
model = RandomForestRegressor()
# Fit model
model.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Get feature importances
importances = model.feature_importances_
# Create a DataFrame for visualization
feature_importance_df = pd.DataFrame({
'feature': X_train.columns,
'importance': importances
}).sort_values(by='importance', ascending=False)
# Select top N features
N = 10
top_features = feature_importance_df.head(N)['feature']
# Update the datasets with top N features
X_train_selected = X_train[top_features]
X_test_selected = X_test[top_features]
```

### Model Building

#### Linear Regression

```
from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression
# Initialize and train the model
lr_model = LinearRegression()
lr_model.fit(X_train_selected, y_train)
# Make predictions
lr_predictions = lr_model.predict(X_test_selected)
```

#### Random Forest

```
from sklearn.ensemble import RandomForestRegressor
# Initialize and train the model
rf_model = RandomForestRegressor()
rf_model.fit(X_train_selected, y_train)
# Make predictions
rf_predictions = rf_model.predict(X_test_selected)
```

#### Gradient Boosting

```
from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingRegressor
# Initialize and train the model
gb_model = GradientBoostingRegressor()
gb_model.fit(X_train_selected, y_train)
# Make predictions
gb_predictions = gb_model.predict(X_test_selected)
```

### Model Evaluation

```
from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error, r2_score
# Function to evaluate models
def evaluate_model(predictions, y_test):
mse = mean_squared_error(y_test, predictions)
r2 = r2_score(y_test, predictions)
return mse, r2
# Evaluate Linear Regression
lr_mse, lr_r2 = evaluate_model(lr_predictions, y_test)
# Evaluate Random Forest
rf_mse, rf_r2 = evaluate_model(rf_predictions, y_test)
# Evaluate Gradient Boosting
gb_mse, gb_r2 = evaluate_model(gb_predictions, y_test)
# Print Results
print("Linear Regression - MSE: {0:.4f}, R2: {1:.4f}".format(lr_mse, lr_r2))
print("Random Forest - MSE: {0:.4f}, R2: {1:.4f}".format(rf_mse, rf_r2))
print("Gradient Boosting - MSE: {0:.4f}, R2: {1:.4f}".format(gb_mse, gb_r2))
```

### Conclusion

After evaluating the models, you can choose the one with the best performance for your transportation demand forecasting. Note that the choice of features, model parameters, and hyperparameters can significantly impact model performance. You might further iterate on these steps, including different feature selection techniques, hyperparameter tuning, and considering additional models.

## Evaluating Model Performance

After building predictive models, it is crucial to evaluate their performance to understand how well they are likely to perform on new, unseen data. Here is a step-by-step Python implementation of how to evaluate model performance using common metrics in a Google Colab environment.

### Step-by-Step Implementation:

**Import Necessary Libraries:**Ensure you have the libraries to handle model evaluation.`import numpy as np import pandas as pd from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split from sklearn.metrics import mean_squared_error, r2_score, mean_absolute_error`

**Prepare Data:**Split your dataset into training and testing sets. Assume`X`

is the feature set and`y`

is the target variable.`X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.2, random_state=42)`

**Train and Predict with your Model:**Train your model (example: Linear Regression) and make predictions.`from sklearn.linear_model import LinearRegression model = LinearRegression() model.fit(X_train, y_train) y_pred = model.predict(X_test)`

**Evaluate Performance:**Utilize different metrics to evaluate the performance of the predictive model.`# Mean Absolute Error (MAE) mae = mean_absolute_error(y_test, y_pred) # Mean Squared Error (MSE) mse = mean_squared_error(y_test, y_pred) # Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) rmse = np.sqrt(mse) # R-squared (R2 Score) r2 = r2_score(y_test, y_pred) # Printing the evaluation metrics print(f"Mean Absolute Error (MAE): {mae}") print(f"Mean Squared Error (MSE): {mse}") print(f"Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE): {rmse}") print(f"R-squared (R2 Score): {r2}")`

**Cross-Validation:**Perform cross-validation to ensure that the performance is consistent across different subsets of the data.`from sklearn.model_selection import cross_val_score # Cross-validation with 5 folds cv_scores = cross_val_score(model, X, y, cv=5, scoring='neg_mean_squared_error') cv_rmse = np.sqrt(-cv_scores) print(f"Cross-Validation RMSE scores: {cv_rmse}") print(f"Mean Cross-Validation RMSE: {cv_rmse.mean()}") print(f"Standard Deviation of Cross-Validation RMSE: {cv_rmse.std()}")`

This implementation covers evaluating a model's performance using key metrics such as MAE, MSE, RMSE, R^2 score, and cross-validation. This will enable you to comprehensively assess your model's predictive power in your transportation dataset analysis project in Google Colab.

## Communicating Insights and Reporting

After completing the analysis and modeling, the final step in our transportation data analysis project is to communicate the insights and report the findings. Here, we will handle this using Python and Google Colab, making use of the available libraries to create a comprehensive report.

### 1. Create a Summary of Findings

This can be done by summarizing key insights, metrics, and statistics.

```
# Summarizing Findings
summary = {
'Total Rides': total_rides, # Assuming this is calculated during data inspection.
'Average Ride Length': average_ride_length, # Assumed calculated during exploratory analysis.
'Top Routes': top_routes, # Identified during clustering analysis.
'Impact of External Factors': external_factors_impact_summary, # Summarized from external factors analysis.
'Model Performance': model_performance, # Summarized from model evaluation.
}
for key, value in summary.items():
print(f"{key}: {value}")
```

### 2. Visualizations

Include key visualizations using libraries like Matplotlib and Seaborn to make the report visually appealing.

```
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
# Example: Plotting the top routes
plt.figure(figsize=(10,6))
sns.barplot(data=top_routes, x='Route', y='Number_of_Rides')
plt.title('Top Routes by Number of Rides')
plt.xlabel('Routes')
plt.ylabel('Number of Rides')
plt.xticks(rotation=45)
plt.show()
# Example: Showing model performance
plt.figure(figsize=(10,6))
sns.barplot(data=model_performance, x='Model', y='Accuracy')
plt.title('Predictive Model Performance')
plt.xlabel('Model')
plt.ylabel('Accuracy')
plt.ylim(0, 1)
plt.show()
```

### 3. Convert the Report to PDF

Using the `fpdf`

library in Python.

```
from fpdf import FPDF
class PDF(FPDF):
def header(self):
self.set_font('Arial', 'B', 12)
self.cell(0, 10, 'Transportation Data Analysis Report', 0, 1, 'C')
def chapter_title(self, title):
self.set_font('Arial', 'B', 12)
self.cell(0, 10, title, 0, 1, 'L')
self.ln(10)
def chapter_body(self, body):
self.set_font('Arial', '', 12)
self.multi_cell(0, 10, body)
self.ln()
def add_visualization(self, path, x=10, y=None, w=0):
self.image(path, x=x, y=y, w=w)
pdf = PDF()
# Adding Summary Section
pdf.add_page()
pdf.chapter_title('Summary of Findings')
summary_text = ""
for key, value in summary.items():
summary_text += f"{key}: {value}\n"
pdf.chapter_body(summary_text)
# Adding Plot Images
# Assuming saved images
pdf.add_page()
pdf.chapter_title('Visualizations')
pdf.add_visualization('top_routes_plot.png')
pdf.ln(10)
pdf.add_visualization('model_performance_plot.png')
pdf.output('Transportation_Data_Analysis_Report.pdf', 'F')
```

### 4. Email the Report (Optional)

You may also want to email the report using the `smtplib`

library.

```
import smtplib
from email.mime.multipart import MIMEMultipart
from email.mime.application import MIMEApplication
def send_email(report_path, recipient_email):
sender_email = "your_email@example.com"
subject = "Transportation Data Analysis Report"
body = "Please find attached the transportation data analysis report."
msg = MIMEMultipart()
msg['From'] = sender_email
msg['To'] = recipient_email
msg['Subject'] = subject
msg.attach(MIMEText(body, 'plain'))
with open(report_path, "rb") as attachment:
part = MIMEApplication(attachment.read(), Name='Transportation_Data_Analysis_Report.pdf')
part['Content-Disposition'] = 'attachment; filename="Transportation_Data_Analysis_Report.pdf"'
msg.attach(part)
with smtplib.SMTP('smtp.example.com', 587) as server:
server.starttls()
server.login(sender_email, 'your_password')
server.sendmail(sender_email, recipient_email, msg.as_string())
send_email('Transportation_Data_Analysis_Report.pdf', 'recipient@example.com')
```

This implementation provides a detailed process for summarizing, visualizing, and reporting the insights achieved from the analysis of the transportation dataset. The generated PDF report contains the key insights and visualizations, enhancing communication and presentation of findings.

# Conclusion and Future Work

## Conclusion

In this project, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of a complex transportation dataset using Python in a Google Colab environment. The key steps in our analysis involved:

**Data Cleaning and Preprocessing:**We handled missing values, removed duplicates, and transformed variables to ensure the dataset was ready for analysis.**Exploratory Data Analysis:**By generating various visualizations and summarizing statistics, we gained initial insights into the data distribution and patterns.**Time Series Analysis:**We analyzed temporal patterns in transportation data, identifying peak hours and trends over different time periods.**Impact of External Factors:**We explored how external factors such as weather and events influenced transportation patterns.**Geospatial Analysis:**Conducted geospatial analyses to understand the geographical distribution of transportation usage.**Clustering:**Applied clustering techniques to identify distinct patterns and user segments within the dataset.**Predictive Modeling:**Built and evaluated multiple predictive models to forecast transportation demand, using metrics like RMSE and MAE for performance evaluation.**Insight Communication:**Summarized our findings and visualizations in a clear report, facilitating better decision-making.

The project provided actionable insights into transportation dynamics, indicating that certain factors significantly affect transport usage and demand.

## Future Work

While our analysis has yielded significant insights, there are several areas for future exploration and enhancement:

**Incorporation of More Data Sources:**- Acquire real-time data feeds such as traffic conditions, social media trends, and public events to improve the robustness of our analysis.

**Advanced Predictive Modeling:**- Implement more complex models like Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) or Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks to capture temporal dependencies more effectively.
- Conduct hyperparameter optimization using techniques such as Grid Search or Random Search.

**Enhanced Geospatial Analysis:**- Utilize advanced geospatial techniques and tools like Geopandas and Folium to create interactive maps for deeper spatial insights.
- Investigate the use of advanced clustering methods such as DBSCAN for spatial clustering.

**Optimization Algorithms:**- Apply optimization algorithms to solve problems like route optimization for reducing travel time and costs.

**User Behavior Analysis:**- Perform behavioral analysis on different user segments to tailor services and improve user experience.

**Anomaly Detection:**- Develop models to detect anomalies in transportation data, such as sudden drops or spikes in demand, which could indicate infrastructure issues or special events.

**Automated Reporting:**- Create dashboards using tools like Tableau or Power BI for real-time monitoring and automated reporting to stakeholders.

By undertaking these suggested areas for future work, we can further enrich our analysis, enabling more sophisticated insights and better support for decision-makers in the transportation sector.